1.1 / ASTM F3079-14: Standard Practice for Use of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Systems for Monitoring the Impact of Ground Movements During Tunnel and Utility Construction on Existing Underground Utilities
This practice specifically addresses the means and methods for the use of distributed optical fiber sensors for monitoring ground movements during tunnel and utility construction and its impact on existing utilities. This practice applies to the process of selecting suitable materials, design, installation, data collection, data processing and reporting of results. This practice applies to all utilities that transport water, sewage, oil, gas, chemicals, electric power, communications and mass media content. This practice applies to all tunnels that transport and/or store water or sewage. This practice also applies to tunnels that carry the utilities in (1.3), water for hydropower, traffic, rail, freight, capsule transport, and those used for storage. The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.2 / PRODML
PRODML is a set of standards for optimizing producing oil and gas wells, with a focus on data from the reservoir-wellbore boundary to the custody transfer point.
With the advent of digital and smart oilfields, the ability to share standardized data among all the actors is essential to enable near-real-time production optimization.
The current inventory of PRODML standards includes: production optimization, production fiber optic distributed temperature surveys (DTS) and distributed acoustic sensing (DAS), the production lab results, notably fluid properties, simple product volume reporting, fluid and PVT analysis, Wireline Formation Testing (WFT), production volumes, flow network and well test, time series and time series statistics.
PRODML is under the management of a dedicated Special Interest Group (SIG), bringing together specialists from numerous member companies and organizations to chart the future of the standard.
1.3 / IEC 61757-2-2: Fibre optic sensors - Part 2-2: Temperature measurement - Distributed sensing
IEC 61757-2-2:2016(E) defines detail specifications for distributed temperature measurement by a fibre optic sensor, also known as fibre optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). DTS includes the use of Raman scattering, Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh scattering effects. In addition, Raman scattering and Rayleigh scattering based measurements are performed with a single-ended fibre configuration only. Brillouin scattering based measurements are performed with a single-ended fibre or fibre loop configuration. The technique accessible from both sides at same time (e. g. Brillouin optical time domain analysis, BOTDA) is referred to here as a loop configuration. Generic specifications for fibre optic sensors are defined in IEC 61757-1:2012. This part of IEC 61757 specifies the most important DTS performance parameters and defines the procedures for their determination. In addition to the group of performance parameters, a list of additional parameters has been defined to support the definition of the measurement specifications and their associated test procedures. The definitions of these additional parameters are provided for informational purposes and should be included with the sets of performance parameters. A general test setup is defined in which all parameters can be gathered through a set of tests. The specific tests are described within the clause for each measurement parameter. This general test setup is depicted and described in Clause 4 along with a list of general information that should be documented based upon the specific DTS instrument and test setup used to measure these parameters as per IEC 61757-2-2. Annex A provides a blank performance parameter table which should be used to record the performance parameter values for a given DTS instrument and chosen optical test setup configuration. Annex B provides guidelines for optional determination of point defect effects. Keywords: fibre optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS)
1.4 / IEC 61757-3-1: Fibre optic sensors: Part 3—Distributed temperature sensing
! Inactive !
This document defines detail specifications for distributed temperature measurement by a fibre optic sensor, also known as fibre optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). DTS includes the use of Raman scattering, Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh scattering effects. In addition, Raman scattering and Rayleigh scattering based measurements are performed with a single-ended fibre configuration only. Brillouin scattering based measurements are performed with a single-ended fibre or fibre loop configuration. The technique accessible from both sides at same time (e.g. Brillouin optical time domain analysis, BOTDA) is referred to here as a loop configuration. Generic specifications for fibre optic sensors are defined in IEC 61757-1.
1.5 / SEAFOM MSP-01: Measurement Specification for Distributed Temperature Sensing
This document was written by and on the initiative of the SEAFOM Measurement Specifications Working Group. It is targeted specifically for “Distributed Temperature Sensing” (DTS). It is intended to be used as a guide to enable the characterization of performance of any DTS as defined by the measurement parameters and via the use of a standardized set of measurement practices contained: including test setups, procedures, and calculation methods. It is not intended to actually define any specific acceptance criteria for any given application, neither to limit the ability for any user to use any brand of DTS with any desired fiber and cable that is compatible with such system. The temperature controlling devices and the reference measurement equipment that are required to support these setups and procedures do not require any particular class of performance; however, their performance parameters will limit the quality of the determination of the various fiber measurement parameters.
The objective of this document is to describe a harmonized set of DTS performance testing procedures. The testing procedures are valid for any brand or model of a DTS system. This document does not pose any requirements on the actual DTS system performance.
1.6 / API-RP-1175
API Recommended Practice (RP) 1175 establishes a framework for Leak Detection Program (LDP) management for hazardous liquid pipelines that are jurisdictional to the U.S. Department of Transportation (specifically, 49 CFR Part 195). This RP is an industry consensus document written by a representative group of hazardous liquid pipeline operators. API 1175 focuses on using a risk-based approach to each pipeline operator’s LDP. Reviewing the main body of this document and following the guidance set forth assists in creating an inherently risk mitigating LDP management system. API 1175 represents industry best practices in managing an LDP. All forms of leak detection used by a pipeline operator should be managed in a coordinated manner. The overall goal of the LDP is to detect leaks quickly and with certainty, thus facilitating quicker shutdown and therefore minimizing negative consequences. This RP focuses on management of LDPs, not the design of leak detection systems (LDSs), and therefore contains relatively little technical detail. As with API 1130, API 1175 applies to single-phase pipelines only; however, the approach may be applicable to pipelines that are not single phase.
1.7 / ASTM F3092 - 14(2019): Standard Terminology Relating to Optical Fiber Sensing Systems
This terminology standard is a compilation of definitions of technical terms related to optical fiber sensing systems, used in the various sections of standards under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F36. Where possible definitions are stated as a single sentence, with necessary supplementary information as a Discussion. This approach is used to simplify explanations of the meanings of technical terms for the benefit of those not conversant with them, to facilitate a precise understanding and interpretation of F36 ASTM standards. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.8 / ASTM F2070 – 00(2017): Standard Specification for Transducers, Pressure and Differential, Pressure, Electrical and Fiber-Optic
This specification covers the requirements for pressure and differential pressure transducers for general applications. Special requirements for naval shipboard applications are included in Supplementary Requirements S1, S2, and S3. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Where information is to be specified, it shall be stated in SI units. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.9 / ASTM D4967 - 99(2013): Standard Guide for Selecting Materials to Be Used for Insulation, Jacketing and Strength Components in Fiber-Optic Cables
This guide is intended to provide a list of materials commonly used in components that provide insulation, jacketing and strength in fiber-optic cables. Where these materials are covered by ASTM standards, an appropriate reference is made. Due to changing technology, not all materials being used are necessarily listed here. This guide does not include materials used in components for optical purposes (optical fiber and its coating) or external metallic armoring (such as for a barrier to rodents). This guide offers two general lists of materials: A subdivision of fiber-optic cable construction into components that are used for insulation, jacketing, or strength, with a generic material classification for specific applications in each component
1.10 / ASTM F2462 - 05(2015): Standard Practice for Operation and Maintenance of Sewers with Optical Fiber Systems
This is intended to outline O&M issues that require discussion and mutual agreement by both the optical fiber cable owner and sewer pipeline operator. The purpose is developing sufficient written procedures and practices to allow optical fiber systems to coexist as a secondary use within a sewer. To the extent that sewers are primarily for conveying flow, it is the responsibility of the optical fiber cable owner to accommodate sewer O&M practices and develop optical fiber system O&M procedures that will not material impact the sewer’s primary function. Since the practice of integrating sewers and optical fiber systems is an emerging activity, this practice will help establish guidelines for its rapid and safe deployment, ensuring that the installed facilities are operable as intended on a long-term basis.
1.11 / ASTM F2233 - 03(2015): Standard Guide for Safety, Access Rights, Construction, Liability, and Risk Management for Optical Fiber Networks in Existing Sewers
Safety factors must be addressed and incorporated into the work to protect the workers and the public, and construction activities may need to be altered accordingly. Engineering and construction costs are a part of the analysis. Access rights to the work should be considered in the design of the project. A construction professional, who has field experience in construction activities similar to the scope of work anticipated, should review the plans for constructability prior to starting the project. Proper insurance and surety bonding to protect the interests of all parties to the agreement or contract should be considered. Risk management assessment will identify the parties that are in the best position to control and be responsible for the different risks.
1.12 / ASTM F2303 - 03(2015): Standard Practice for Selection of Gravity Sewers Suitable for Installation of Optical Fiber Cable and Conduits
This practice is intended to assist engineers and sewer owner/operators in determining the suitability of sewers for a secondary use as hosts for optical fiber cables and conduits. It must be kept in mind that the primary use of the sewers is to carry wastewater or storm water, or both. Any secondary use of the system shall not significantly impair the primary use. It is up to the engineer to decide upon any exceptions that may be involved in the selection process. Before the selection procedure begins, the installer must have explicit authorization from the owner/operator allowing an evaluation to be conducted for the installation of optical fiber cables or conduits within their sewer system. Engineers and owners should also be cognizant of how the installation of optical fiber cable or conduits will impact the future operational, maintenance, and rehabilitation needs of the sewers
1.13 / COST 299 FIDES: Optical Fibres for New Challenges Facing the Information Society "FIDES"
The Action has succeeded to fulfil its major objective to form a fibre optics community in the European space of science. A clear outcome is the existence of transnational relationship and partnership that were non-existing at the beginning of the Action, including indistinctively former Eastern countries. The active participation of Early Stage Researchers has been constantly favoured by targeting support and organizing events for this class of participants, such as an ambitious Training School. The Action has also produced an important public document that will impact on the standardization in the domain by providing guidelines for the specifications of fibre optics sensors. A book is currently in the edition process, covering the essential knowledge needed by a technical specialist or an early stage researcher active in the field of fibre optics. The Action has supported 30 Short Term Scientific Missions, all conducted by junior researchers, and has produced the significant number of 230 scientific publications, from which 168 result from a direct collaborative work. Finally the Action has fostered the creation of consortiums for 33 transnational and supranational projects, such as those in the European Framework Programme..
1.14 / IEC 62508:2010: Guidance on human aspects of dependability
IEC 62508:2010 provides guidance on the human aspects of dependability, and the human-centred design methods and practices that can be used throughout the whole system life cycle to improve dependability performance. This standard describes qualitative approaches. This first edition cancels and replaces IEC/PAS 62508 published in 2007.
1.15 / IEC 61746-1:2009: Calibration of optical time-domain reflectometers (OTDR) - Part 1: OTDR for single mode fibres
1.16 / IEC 61746-2:2010: Calibration of optical time-domain reflectometers (OTDR) - Part 2: OTDR for multimode fibres
IEC 61746-1: 2009 provides procedures for calibrating single-mode optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). It only covers OTDR measurement errors and uncertainties. This standard does not cover correction of the OTDR response. This first edition of IEC 61746-1 cancels and replaces the second edition of IEC 61746, published in 2005. It constitutes a technical revision. The main technical changes are the adaptation of Clause 4, the suppression of Clause 10, the improvement and the addition of some definitions, the change of some calculations and the change of graphical symbology to IEC/TR 61930.
1.17 / IEC 61744:2005: Calibration of fibre optic chromatic dispersion test sets
This International Standard provides standard procedures for the calibration of optical fibre chromatic dispersion (CD) test sets. It also provides procedures to perform calibration checking on CD test sets whereby an extension to the test set calibration period may be obtained.
1.18 / IEC 62129-1:2016: Calibration of wavelength/optical frequency measurement instruments - Part 1: Optical spectrum analyzers
IEC 62129-1:2016 specifies procedures for calibrating an optical spectrum analyzer that is developed for use in fibre-optic communications and designed to measure the power distribution of an optical spectrum. It does not apply to an optical wavelength meter that measures only centre wavelengths, a Fabry-Perot interferometer or a monochromator that has no display unit. This first edition of IEC 62129-1 cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 62129, published in 2006. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- update of term and definitions;
- update of calibration conditions;
- calculation change of uncertainties related to wavelength temperature dependence, power linearity, power level temperature dependence;
- move of Annex E to the bibliography.
1.19 / IEC 61753-1:2018 RLV: Fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive components - Performance standard - Part 1: General and guidance
IEC 61753-1:2018 is also available as IEC 61753-1:2018 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61753-1:2018 provides guidance for the drafting of performance standards for all passive fibre optic products. This document defines the tests and severities which form the performance categories or general operating service environments and identifies those tests which are considered to be product specific. Test and severity details are given in Annex A. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2007. It constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) definitions updated with new products: wall outlets, wall or pole mounted boxes, splices, ODF modules, street cabinets, hardened connectors and field mountable connectors;
b) categories U and O are replaced by categories OP and OP+. No mandatory sequence in category OP+. Category OP+ contains the tests from category OP with the addition of only 4 other tests;
c) addition of Category I (Industrial);
d) temperature ranges added (with the HD suffix to the categories C, OP, OP+ and I) in case passive optical components are placed in a housing together with active electronics (HD stands for “heat dissipation”);
e) the height of category A changed from 3 m to ground level (0 m);
f) the lower level height of category G environment changed from ground level (0 m) to –1 m below ground level. Upper level remains at 3 m above ground level;
g) addition of performance tests, test severities and performance criteria for new products: Wall outlet, wall or pole mounted boxes, mechanical splices, fusion splice protectors, ODF modules, street cabinets, field mountable connectors and hardened optical connectors;
h) test severity of "Mating durability" test for connectors in categories C, OP ,OP+ and I is reduced to 200 cycles for connectors with cylindrical ferrules and 50 cycles for connectors with rectangular ferrules;
i) test severity of "Change of temperature" test for connectors and passive optical components in category I is reduced from 20 cycles to 12 cycles (harmonized with connectors and components from other categories);
j) test severity of "Flexing of strain relief" test for connectors in categories C, OP and OP+ is reduced to 50 cycles;
k) test severities of "Assembly and disassembly of fibre optic mechanical splices, fibre management systems and closures" test for all enclosures is reduced to 5 cycles;
l) test severities of "Change of temperature" test for all protective housings in categories C, A, G and S is reduced from 20 cycles to 12 cycles (harmonized with connectors and components);
m) test severities of "Resistance to solvents and contaminating fluids" test for closures in categories G and S changed – kerosene is removed, diesel oil exposure reduced to 1 h immersion and 24 h drying at room temperature;
n) sealing performance criteria of sealed closures for categories G and A are reduced to 20 kPa overpressure.
o) the change in attenuation criterion for connectors has changed from peak-to-peak into a +/- deviation from the original value of the transmitted power at the start of the test (harmonized with the change in attenuation criterion for components, splices and protective housings).
1.20 / ITU-T G.652 (11/16): Characteristics of a single-mode optical fibre and cable
Recommendation ITU-T G.652 describes the geometrical, mechanical and transmission attributes of a single-mode optical fibre and cable which has zero-dispersion wavelength around 1310 nm. The ITU-T G.652 fibre was originally optimized for use in the 1310 nm wavelength region, but can also be used in the 1550 nm region. This is the latest revision of a Recommendation that was first created in 1984 and deals with some relatively minor modifications. This revision is intended to maintain the continuing commercial success of this fibre in the evolving world of high-performance optical transmission systems.
1.21 / SEAFOM TSD-01: Functional Design and Test Specification for an Optical Feedthrough System used in Subsea Xmas Tree Installation
This guidance note has been prepared under the auspices of the Subsea Fiber Optic Monitoring (SEAFOM) joint industry group, and the Feedthrough System Working Group, formed to promote international standardization of subsea optical monitoring and sensing functional and test parameters for optical feedthrough systems used in subsea Christmas Trees (XT). This document specifically addresses the interface between the subsea environment of the XT and the downhole or reservoir environment for transmission of optical data through the XT. This guidance note outlines the minimum design and functional requirements, and the minimum qualification and factory acceptance test requirements for an optical feedthrough system (OFS) to be used in intelligent well applications using vertical or horizontal subsea Christmas (Xmas) Trees. The XT forms the critical pressure containment barrier between the well and the subsea environments, and as such, all interfaces within the XT shall meet the requirements of the XT as a barrier system as defined within API 6A / ISO 10423, API 17D / ISO 13628-4 and ISO 13628-6/API 17 F.
1.22 / SEAFOM TSD-02: Functional Design and Test Specification for Subsea Electrical and Optical Connectors and Jumpers
This specification covers the requirements for design, fabrication, performance, materials, operation and installation, intervention, testing and qualification for seawater exposed drymate and wet-mate subsea connectors and jumper assemblies as defined herein for subsea production equipment. Covered designs include; electrical, electrical/optical (hybrid), and optical connectors. The Ethernet testing described in Section 12 is relevant for communication links utilizing the Ethernet subsea, even if parts of the link are not seawater exposed i.e. internal to instruments or subsea control modules. The target groups for this specification are personnel involved in technology development, fabrication and delivery of referenced connectors, project planners and project executioners utilizing these connectors in their projects.